onsdag 16 maj 2007

På jakt efter svensk tekultur

Engelsmännen har English Breakfast, Yellow Label och Earl Grey. Antingen med mjölk eller socker eller eventuellt med en citronskiva i Earl Grey-fallet. Mer än 95% av teet konsumeras i påse. Araberna tar gärna samovarkokat te med mycket socker och kanske mynta eller rosenvatten i. Kineserna och japanerna har sina rena gröna lösteer och skulle förfasa sig över om någon fick för sig att hälla mjölk eller socker i. Hur kan man förstå så olika tekulturer?

Den viktigaste faktorn för hur ett lands tekultur har utvecklats måste vara tillgången på te. Låt oss spekulera i hur det kan ha gått till. Under flera hundra års tid var Kina det enda landet där te odlades. Här kunde man få te nyskördad och färskt, och det var också de enklaste metoderna för att processa teet som gav grönt och vitt te. De enklaste metoderna var de metoderna man upptäckte först, och därmed det man vande sig vid. Grönt te lämpar sig däremot dåligt för lagring och transport. Kina är ett stort land med långa transportsträckor, och kineserna upptäckte säkert tidigt vilka teer som passade bäst för långa transporter: pu-er och svart te. Kineserna i de avlägsna provinserna fastnade mer för pu-er än för svart te, men när Mellanösterns folk började handla med Kina via Sidenvägen verkar det som att de orientaliska handelsmännen tog det svarta teet till sina hjärtan. Det är inte orimligt att europeernas första kontakt med te skedde genom orientaliska handelsmän på marknaderna vid Medelhavet. Det svarta teet blev europeernas bild av te. När Ostindiska Kompaniet sedan började etabera handel med Kina letade man just efter sådant te. Man fick säkert med sig även grönt te, men när man upptäckte att det tappade mycket mer smak än det svarta teet efter det år det tog att segla hem till England lät man bli att ta hem mer.

För det andra kan vi konstatera att te sällan serveras ensamt. Det är trevligt att ha något att äta när vi dricker te. En del smaker komplementerar och förstärker varandra, medan andra kraschar och förstör varandra. Grönt te passar till de lätta, wokade och ångade smaker som är vanliga i den asiatiska kulturen. Majoriteten av befolningen i östasien är laktosintoleranta - och grönt te går dåligt ihop med mjölk. Folket i Mellanöstern behövde ett te som kunde stå upp mot deras kryddiga, mustiga grytor och söta bakverk. Svart te med socker, mynta eller kanske något kryddkorn stod väl upp mot dessa rätter. Engelskmännen behövde något som stod upp mot deras kraftiga frukost; korvar, bacon, bakade bönor, omelett... och det resulterade i att de kraftiga, djupa svarta teerna från Assam och Ceylon blev populära. De har fylligheten för att stå upp mot fet, flottig, salt mat men kräver mjölk eller socker för att beskan ska balanseras upp. Kraftiga svarta teer med socker och mjölk blev en naturlig utveckling.

Sverige då? Den traditionella svenska frukosten är betydligt lättare än den engelska. Ett par smörgåsar med skinka eller med ost och marmelad. Havregrynsgröt. Ett kokt ägg. Fil och flingor eller müsli. Det är ganska sällan vi svenskar äter stekt mat till frukost. Det ger en förutsättning för lite lättare svarta teer som komplement till frukosten. På det viset är det förvånande att Darjeeling inte är vanligare än vad det är i Sverige. Kanske beror det på att det är en annan måltid som har etsat sig in i våra tesinnen; fikan. En klassisk fika med ett flertal söta, krispiga småkakor och kanske en sockerkaka eller en tårta. Till detta kompletterar söta och blommiga teer bra. Och hjärtat i den svenska tekulturen får väl sägas vara smaksatt, gärna fruktigt svart te, med mjölk och/eller socker. På senare tid har även rooibos intagit allt starkare position hos tedrickarna. Jag tror att det har flera orsaker. Gemene människa i Sverige är osäker på hur man brygger te, och rooibos är svårt att misslyckas med. Det blir inte beskt. Folk letar också efter koffeinfria alternativ. Rooibos är heller inte lika tungt som svart te.

Ser man till vår svenska matkultur så har vi en stor blandning av smaker. Vår frukost är som redan nämnt en lätt historia som bäst borde kompletteras av ljusa svarta teer som Darjeeling och ljusa oolonger. Stekt strömming och potatismos... varför inte ett japanskt grönt te? Stekt fläsk och löksås... en blanding med ett uns lapsang i, som Sir John eller Sir Williams? Kalops med rödbetor... en mörk oolong? Vi dricker sällan te som dryck till våra huvudmåltider, men det finns mycket spännande kvar att utforska på det området.

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